By Christine E. Sears (auth.)
Read Online or Download American Slaves and African Masters: Algiers and the Western Sahara, 1776–1820 PDF
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Extra info for American Slaves and African Masters: Algiers and the Western Sahara, 1776–1820
In his 1931 diplomatic history, Ray W. Irwin substituted one term for the other, as does H. G. Barnby in his 1966 account of the Algerian-American War. Stephen Clissold followed suit in 1977, but went further to define Algerian bagnios as “slave-prisons” to simultaneously invoke slaves and prisoners of war. 1980s scholars continued in this pattern. As Ellen Friedman examined early modern Spaniards’ Barbary experiences, she sometimes used “slave” and “captive” in a single sentence. ”38 This instance highlights the schizophrenia of the approach.
Their labor belonged to their master, whose orders they were to follow. Even in colonial US culture, slaves represented only one group of unfree people. 50 Indeed, terms such as “slavery” and “freedom” are inherently difficult to pin down particularly as their definitions change over time and place. Shaler’s view of slavery mutated between 1815 and 1826 because US slavery, its practice and perception, changed. Historian Gillian Weiss tracked how French conceptions of slavery and freedom also shifted over time.
8 In some ways, American and European slaves relied on one another from the time they were enslaved. When first seized, Foss and his crewmates feared being punished for inadvertently performing their work incorrectly. ” Since Foss knew French, he learned what was expected of the new slaves. 9 These “Dutchmen” may have been New Yorkers. They belonged to the American ship Hope, bound from Amsterdam to Malaga when captured near Gibraltar. In his 46 American Slaves and African Masters journal Foss labeled them “Dutchmen,” but when listing redeemed sailors, Foss registered all Hope crewmen as New Yorkers.