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Additional resources for Adaptive Techniques for Mixed Signal System on Chip (The International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)
Since Eqs. 3-1 through 3-7 assume that both M1 and M2 are operating in the triode-mode, the following condition has to be satisfied: VC VCM Vid VT 2 (3-8) Equations 3-1 through 3-7 suggest that the transconductor is achieving the desired function in a perfectly linear fashion. However, in order to evaluate the linear performance of the transconductor, a more accurate model of the triode-mode operation of the transistor that models secondorder effects has to be used. Equations 3-1 and 3-2 are assuming that in the triode-mode of operation the current is linearly proportional to the gatesource voltage (the ideal MOS current formula), and that is not very accurate especially for short-channel devices.
1186-1189, May. 1986. 11. S. T. Dupuie and M. Ismail, “High frequency CMOS transconductors,” in Analog IC Design: the current-mode approach (C. J. Lidgey, and D. G. Haigh, eds), ch. , 1990. 12. P. E. Allen and D. R. Holberg, “CMOS Analog Circuit Design,” Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1987. 13. M. Ismail, “Four-transistor continuous-time MOS transconductor,” Electronics Letters, vol. 23, PP. 1099-1100, Sept. 1987. 14. P. Ryan and D. G. Haigh, “Novel fully-differential MOS transconductor for integrated continuous-time filters,” Electronics Letters, vol.
As Eqs. 3-16 and 3-17 show, the value of both Gm+ and Gm- is a function of the differential input voltage Vid, which introduces nonlinearity to the output currents and consequently increases the total harmonic distortion in the output signal. Hence, if a specific linear performance is required, the input voltage range has to be limited to a small value. This fact further decreases the valuable Chapter 3 44 input voltage range beyond the condition specified in Eq. 3-8. The second limitation is that Gm+ and Gm-, are not equal, which means that the circuit is not truly fully differential, and will introduce common-mode distortion at the output.