By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the twentieth century was once marked via a shift in how welfare-states take care of these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a situation for receiving minimal source of revenue advantages - which, in a few international locations, used to be complemented via efforts to aid recipients go back to the labour industry, specifically throughout the funding in energetic labour industry rules (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 eu international locations (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this ebook argues that this primary set of reforms used to be by way of a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the point of interest on paintings, brings very important techniques- be it the instruments used to assist recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation guidelines are brought (ex., integration of gain and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we figure key traits.
The first matters the strengthening of the function of the industry within the governance of activation, that is noticeable within the strengthening of the focal point on paintings, or the marketisation of employment prone. the second one, matters a stream in the direction of the individualisation of provider supply, obvious within the enlargement of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline provider supply.
Finally, we express that the onset of the sovereign debt difficulty in Europe, has brought on a brand new wave of reforms. when tentative basically, our research issues to a caring pattern of the curtailment or advantages (Portugal) and activation companies (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, an extra deepening of the point of interest on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Additional resources for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
2 That this group is falling behind in income development is paradoxical, given the enhanced goal in the 21st century of combating poverty in this group, a focus we shall explore in the next section. The Fight Against Poverty: Call for a New Activation Approach In the 1997 parliamentary elections, Norway’s Labour government was taken to task for not having done enough to concretely address the issue of poverty (Hagen & Lødemel, 2003). In 1998, the newly reigning center-right government spoke to the idea of a “softer work approach” in its 1998 White Paper on Equalization and emphasized the need to develop more flexible and individualized support schemes for the transition to work (Sosial- og helsedepartementet, 1999; Bryn, 2008).
We begin with a description of the key historical developments that shaped this new approach for social assistance clients, starting with the policy framework that existed in the late 1990s and a discussion of possible contradictions between national objectives and local implementation. We then describe and analyze the single most important reform pertaining to social assistance clients over the last decade, the Qualification Program, the contexts that preceded the introduction of the reform Norway: Activation Reform on a Wave of Wider Welfare State Change 21 in 2007, and the role of various stakeholders in this process.
Due to this crucial role, during the program’s start-up phase from 2007 to 2010 the ways in which local 28 Activation or Workfare? NAV offices translated their mandates into the workings of the program were closely supervised and reported upon by the national NAV administration (the NAV Directorate) and the regional authorities, both of which were to collect regular reports from municipal NAV offices on program activity levels and results (number of participants entering work). These reports were then to be used to calculate earmarked grants provided to each municipal office for direct use on program-related expenses (NAV Directorate, 2011).